The Eight Generals and the NEIMEN SONGJIANG BATTLE Ritual

Colorful Taiwan Temple Celebrations


For many visitors to Taiwan, among the most colorful and powerful visual memories taken back home are of the deity-led street parades and acrobatic displays by martial-arts troupes that are part of traditional temple celebrations. We provide you with a little “behind the scenes” tour here, on temple processions, the Eight Generals troupes commonly seen leading them, and the popular annual Kaohsiung Neimen Song Jiang Battle Ritual competition.

There is no better way to witness a nation’s people at their joyful best than by observing them watching, and taking part in, their festivals. In Taiwan, traditional Chinese religious festivals are still celebrated almost exactly as they have been over the hundreds of years since Han Chinese started emigrating from mainland China en masse in the 1600s, though of course with much more pomp and pageantry as the island’s people have grown ever wealthier.

Taiwan temple festival

As with other cultures, most of these festivalsoriginated far back in the agricultural past when life was dictated by thecycles of farming life, from planting through harvest. Other popular religiousfestivals are celebrations of the birthdays of deities, which the Chinesepantheon supplies in breathtaking number. Almost invariably, temples serve asthe base for these events. Taiwan is home to approximately 12,000Chinese-religion places of worship, from small shrines to enormous complexes.

Temple Processions

Temple procession band

The main deity in any given temple oversees thegoings-on in that locality, and protect the mortal residents. During festivaland god-birthday celebrations the main deity will go on one or more inspectionprocessions around the community, carried in a palanquin, which is beautifiedwith elaborate carvings. These are raucous affairs, with much banging of drums,blasting of horns, and bursting of firecrackers to scare off lurking evildoersfrom the world beyond.

Heading the procession is the zhentou, literally the “head of the procession formation.” These characters act as a security vanguard, protecting the palanquin-seated god further back by frightening off demons and ghosts and at the same time proclaiming the god’s imminent arrival. While this folk-art form has its roots in the timeless religious practices of China, the present form of zhentou in Taiwan has taken shape over the last few decades and is unique to the island.

Among the most visually vibrant zhentou martial-arts troupes are what are called Eight Generals troupes. These are commonly affiliated with a specific temple. Because the art form involves strenuous physical demands – for example, troupes may be on the streets for hours at a time during deity processions – participants are almost universally male and young, and the temple troupes serve as something akin to a boys’ club. The temples encourage healthy recreation, and encourage local lads who experience troubles in life to join, providing them with friendship, support, focus, and the chance to earn a little money. Usually an old-time troupe member will be a volunteer part-time teacher. After winning competitions the result is more and higher commissions to perform in non-competition events.

Eight Generals heading the procession

The Eight Generals

The first region in Taiwan settled by Han Chinese was the southwest, which today is renowned for its passionate temple culture, and more specifically for its zhentou temple-parade troupes. A key troupe within the larger group of security officers that leads a deity-palanquin procession is the Eight Generals. An Eight Generals formation can in fact feature as many as 13 different figures, but in Taiwan the “Eight Generals” appellation is universally applied.

Members of the Eight Generals

Generals groups originated in Taiwan at the cityof Tainan’s Bailong (White Dragon) Temple in the1800s. When the tradition spread to the city of Chiayi (which today remains ahotbed of temple-troupe culture), the influential CijiTemple troupe settled on an array of four main generals and four “godsof the seasons.” To make performances more visually compelling, over timeTaiwan troupes have made the collective movements and individualdance/acrobatic movements more active, leading to the sophisticated, complexperformances known today.

Ancient belief is that the generals weretroublemaking demons that were brought to heel and, over time, entered into theCity God’s retinue as guards. The duty of these secondary deities is to act asa bodyguard for the main god or gods in processions, driving away ghosts anddemons or capturing them to haul back for trial. At the same time, the mortalcommunity is protected. The generals are equipped with different types ofancient tools of torture, used for “interrogation.”

The ritualized formations used during performancesare drawn from Daoist religious elements steeped in symbolic meaning, such asthe Eight Trigrams, Five Elements, and Seven Stars. Each Eight Generals deityhas distinguishing face-paint design, weaponry, and other elements, andindividual troupes will introduce their own variations.

Let’s use Xia Da Shen, or the GreatSummer God, as an example. The intricate design on his face is said toresemble a turtle, with a plum blossom design also incorporated, the flowerrepresenting the summer season. Flame patterns are also commonly incorporated,for his responsibility is the torture of prisoners through burning. He’ll becarrying his tool of torture, a brazier. Hot coals, anyone?

In the past the makeup consisted simply of asingle base color, black eyes, and a red mouth, but designs have been becomesteadily more complex over time. This is said to be a reflection of thestruggle in society at large – respect for traditions while also adapting tomodernity’s demand for change and novelty. Taiwan, a society of pioneers in thesame fashion as American society sees itself in the best sense, is one ofAsia’s societies most open to change.

In performing their task of menacing otherworldlyne’er-do-wells, the elaborate-garb Eight Generals strike fearsome poses and facialexpressions. According to tradition, under no circumstances should theperformers speak, for this might reveal them to their foes as mere mortals indisguise. Nor should they smile, for the act of smiling might crack theirmakeup. The Eight Generals walk with high, exaggerated sweeping steps, andapproach a temple’s central portal in pairs while the rest of the troupe marksout an intrusion-safe zone. It must be the central portal, for a temple’s maindeity sits in direct alignment inside in the first hall, and the presentationis for the deity first, human onlookers second.

Kaohsiung Neimen Song Jiang Battle Ritual

The Song Jiang Battle Array is a traditional type of performance art incorporating kung fu, drumming, rapid formation transitions, and mock fighting with ancient-style weaponry. The Kaohsiung Neimen Song Jiang Battle Ritual is an annual event that has an adrenaline-pumping grand competition of zhentou martial-arts troupes as its centerpiece. This is the highlight of cultural life in the city of Kaohsiung’s rural Neimen District, where a population of just 15,000 supports between 50 and 60 martial-arts performance troupes.

Performers at the Neimen Song Jiang Battle Ritual event

The 2019 edition ran from Saturday, March 16 to Sunday, April 7. The zhentou competition ran from Saturday, March 30, when the opening ceremony, opening round of the competition, and pulsatingly kaleidoscopic Water Dancing & Fireworks show were held, to the next Saturday, April 6, when the competition finals, awards ceremony, and closing Water Dancing & Fireworks show were held.

Fireworks display on opening day of the event

The formal name of the zhentou competition is the Creative Song Jiang Battle Array Contest. Competing teams are from schools around Taiwan, from elementary to university level. This year, for example, the youngest team was the Jingliao Elementary School Alliance Team, featuring elite performers from different elementary schools. Other troupes came from two high schools and five universities. Also interspersed throughout the full length of the festivities are performances by specially invited troupes, with perhaps the most notable such ensemble this year being the Xiamen Xiangan SongJiang Battle Array troupe from mainland China.

Young drummer

“Song Jiang” was the main character in the classical Chinese novel The Water Margin, who formed his men into intricate formations emphasizing quick transformation to different fighting techniques and positioning. Today’s battle-array performers wield old-style weapons, rattan shields, etc., and some dress as characters from the novel (108 in total). The Eight Generals are also a Song Jiang zhentou constant. Today, the typical troupe is composed of 36 members. The Taiwan battle-array tradition started in the 19th century with martial-arts teams, centered around temples, that served as militia. Then-isolated Neimen, for example, was under constant threat of attack from bandits and indigenous warriors.

Troupe ready to perform

The goal of the Kaohsiung City Government, whichis the organizer, is to spark renewed interest in this old form of artisticexpression. Recognizing that in today’s sophisticated world young people havemany other recreation options vying for their attention, it encourages thefreestyle introduction of creativity atop a faithful base of traditionalmartial-arts formation skills. You’ll thus see imaginative flourishes rangingfrom human-pyramid-building, spinning plates on sticks, and juggling to streetdance and hip-hop, rap, and rock music.

Performing with old-style weapons

Among the splendiferous array of other festival attractions this year was the Daily Gourmet Market, Neimen history and culture tours, the three-day Religious Carnival, and the Neimen Chefs and Tables event. The last was focused on bando, Taiwan’s unique outdoor banqueting culture; for generations, Neimen has been a key Taiwan font for bando crews.

For more information on the Neimen festival, visit For more on Taiwan religion in general, visit the Tourism Bureau website at

Face painting experience a the Song Jiang Battle Ritual

For this article, we visited the Song Jiang Battle Ritual event in Neimen, Kaohsiung. The trip was organized by MYTAIWANTOUR ( and sponsored by the Kaohsiung City Government.

Further reading on other sites:
TAIWAN SCENE: An ancient Chinese tradition made modern: Taiwan’s 2019 Kaohsiung Neimen Song Jiang Battle Array

About the author

Rick Charette

A Canadian, Rick has been resident in Taiwan almost continually since 1988. His book, article, and other writings, on Asian and North American destinations and subjects—encompassing travel, culture, history, business/economics—have been published widely overseas and in Taiwan. He has worked with National Geographic, Michelin, APA Insight Guides, and other Western groups internationally, and with many local publishers and central/city/county government bodies in Taiwan. Rick also handles a wide range of editorial and translation (from Mandarin Chinese) projects.